COVID-19 took the world by storm in 2020, and the virus brought with it financial hardships and an economic recession all over the United States. Cities across the country banded together to mandate stay-at-home orders and required the use of masks in an effort to flatten the curve and prevent the further spread of the virus. As a result, many small businesses took some of the biggest hits financially and were forced to close either temporarily or permanently. In addition, the country has seen an inconsistent wave of regulations that differ from city to city. The United States currently has a total of 6.2 million reported cases of the coronavirus so far, and over 185,000 have died from the virus.

As a result of this economic tragedy, on March 27 the CARES Act was signed into law by President Trump in an effort to help provide aid and relief for Americans. However, it has become clear to business owners and residents nationwide that the majority of the country’s primary functions revolve around social interaction, and many are beginning to question if the act will be enough.

Economic researchers Howard Chernick, David Copeland, and Andrew Reschovsky estimated the financial toll that COVID-19 will take on cities across America in their paper titled “The Fiscal Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Cities: An Initial Assessment” and published in the September 2020 issue of the National Tax Journal. The researchers evaluated 150 fiscally standardized cities based on how much tax revenue they may lose in Fiscal Year 2021. Their results are reflected in two estimates of tax revenue loss, covering areas such as sales tax, personal income tax, and property tax: one estimate uses a less severe scenario (less revenue loss) while the other uses a more severe scenario (more revenue loss). In this story, Stacker ranked the top 100 cities with the highest revenue loss under the less severe scenario; ties are broken by revenue loss under the more severe scenario.

Of the 100 cities on this list, 11 are in California, eight are in Florida, six are in Ohio, and five are in New York. Cities in New York state make up four of the top five cities with the largest projected revenue losses. Read on to find out COVID-19’s revenue impact in your city.

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100. Baltimore

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 4.6% (#97 highest of 150 cities examined)

On average, Baltimore as of Sept. 10 was confirming 102 cases of COVID-19 daily. Maryland became the 19th state to hit 100,000 coronavirus cases on Aug. 16. Baltimore moved into Phase 2 of its reopening Sept. 8, which allows for indoor dining, casinos, and indoor retail to open at 50 percent capacity.

99. Santa Ana, California

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 4.6% (#97 highest of 150 cities examined)

Neighborhoods in Santa Ana by mid-August represented some of the highest case counts of COVID-19 in Orange County. The city had already suffered $12 million in losses by May of this fiscal year, according to Finance Director Kathryn Downs. Santa Ana in late August implemented a Mobile Resource Center that provides free COVID-19 testing, masks, and assistance programs for those impacted by the virus.

97. San Diego (tie)

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 4.6% (#97 highest of 150 cities examined)

Businesses are slowly beginning to open back up in San Diego, but the number of coronavirus cases does not seem to be dwindling. On Sept. 1, 67 new COVID-19 cases were recorded in the city; one new community outbreak that day was traced to a bar/restaurant.

97. Fremont, California (tie)

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 4.6% (#97 highest of 150 cities examined)

Fremont, tied with San Diego in estimated revenue loss from COVID-19, has put forth aggressive initiatives to help relieve some losses to small businesses. The Small Business Relief Grant Program targets Fremont businesses that have been heavily impacted financially from the pandemic, utilizing Fremont’s diverse income tax base which helps employees in the case of emergencies like this.

96. Frederick, Maryland

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 4.7% (#94 highest of 150 cities examined)

Coronavirus case numbers in Federick trended downward in August with a small rise in cases in early September. Frederick County Public School is conducting classes virtually throughout the fall semester.

95. Omaha, Nebraska

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 4.7% (#94 highest of 150 cities examined)

In an April survey, nearly 90 percent of business leaders in Nebraska reported being negatively affected by the COVID-19 crisis. In Omaha, the unemployment rate was 9.9 percent in April, which is 1.3 percent higher than the state’s normal unemployment rate as a whole. Half of the city’s general budget comes from sales tax, making the impact from closed businesses a hard hit.

94. Los Angeles

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 4.7% (#94 highest of 150 cities examined)

Los Angeles has projected a heavy loss in finances, and officials fear for residents’ job security because the projection of case numbers seems uncertain. Since the tourism industry has withered away with the virus’ introduction, the city is looking at a revenue loss between $45 million and $400 million. A UCLA study published in the Sept. 10 issue of the Journal of Medical Internet Research found a spike in patients coming into UCLA Health hospitals and clinics in late December 2019 with coughs and acute respiratory failure. Those findings indicate COVID-19 was already being transmitted in Los Angeles months ahead of the first definitive COVID-19 cases in the U.S. being reported.

93. Birmingham, Alabama

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 4.8% (#90 highest of 150 cities examined)

Due to the pandemic, Birmingham postponed its 2021 budget plan by three months. Its delayed release in late August included reductions that reflected a $63 million shortfall in business tax revenue. About 71 percent of the jobs in Birmingham metro area in mid-March were consumption-based, meaning they required people to leave their homes and spend money, a practice which has been heavily impacted due to city locals staying at home.

92. Fresno, California

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 4.8% (#90 highest of 150 cities examined)

More than 2.8 million Californians by mid-April had filed for unemployment benefits, with thousands of Fresno locals contribute to those numbers. The city surpassed 21,000 cases of COVID-19 in mid-August.

91. Stockton, California

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 4.8% (#90 highest of 150 cities examined)

Stockton officials have their own unemployment relief program for eligible residents. Stockton Economic Empowerment Demonstration (SEED) is a program begun in February 2019 that selects 125 residents to receive $500 a month for 18 months from the city. Stockton officials hope that other cities across the country can contribute to the program and extend the help to others.

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90. Montgomery, Alabama

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 4.8% (#90 highest of 150 cities examined)

Montgomery has had to make major budget cuts since the pandemic took effect. City officials have already planned for a $20 million revenue loss for the 2020 and 2021 fiscal year. In April 2020, Judge Mark Keough terminated the city’s “Stay at Home, Stop the Spread” order, which implemented a curfew to the residents.

89. Knoxville, Tennessee (tie)

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 4.9% (#86 highest of 150 cities examined)

Many businesses in Knoxville have struggled to get consumers through their doors since COVID-19 broke out, and they’ve struggled to get their furloughed employees to return to work. The city has seen a total of more than 7,000 coronavirus cases and counting, and the state has reported a 3.3 percent unemployment rate.

88. Nashville, Tennessee (tie)

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 4.9% (#86 highest of 150 cities examined)

Nashville has specifically seen a spike in its downtown areas, where young people reside and use the location for entertainment purposes. While doctors admit that most young people will likely see little-to-no severe symptoms of the virus, they still encourage people of all ages to socially distance and remain conscious of the virus’ effects. Furthermore, being a music capital, the city has recently funded $2 million toward struggling music venues.

87. Chattanooga, Tennessee

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 4.9% (#86 highest of 150 cities examined)

With over 8,000 coronavirus cases affecting the city’s residents, the Chattanooga mayor Jim Coppinger placed a mandatory mask order in July to help prevent the spread of the coronavirus. The order was set to expire a few days into April but was recently extended to October 8 since officials see no end to the virus in the near future. Even with the rule in place, 60 percent of Chattanooga businesses have seen a major loss in revenue.

86. Riverside, California

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 4.9% (#86 highest of 150 cities examined)

Outside of Riverside’s financial losses—unemployment hit 13.7 percent in July—the city was the first to report a case of MIS-C, which is a rare complication found in children under the age of 21. It has not been reported as to what causes MIS-C, but most reported patients are known to have fully recovered.

85. Greensboro, North Carolina

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.0% (#84 highest of 150 cities examined)

The financial impact on COVID-19 on the Greensboro community was already estimated by mid-April to be $1.5 million. Greensboro typically receives about $58 million a year from sales tax; since the economic shutdown, county officials braced for as much as a 50 percent dropoff through fiscal year 2021 that begain in July.

84. Modesto, California

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.0% (#84 highest of 150 cities examined)

By late May, Modesto officials were expecting an estimated $20.1 million deficit in the city’s general fund budget. The lack of funds has meant tough considerations for various cost-cutting measures, from reduced firefighter positions and up to $2.2 million less in the overtime fund for the police department there.

83. Jackson, Mississippi

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.1% (#79 highest of 150 cities examined)

Due to Mississippi’s drastic state budget cut, many cities, including Jackson, face major job losses from the coronavirus. The state has been criticized for its unstable unemployment system, as many people struggle to make ends meet. The Jackson City Council decided to make a $2.6 million budget cut for the 2021 fiscal year.

82. Raleigh, North Carolina

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.1% (#79 highest of 150 cities examined)

Raleigh set up funding for eligible small businesses that have lost at least 25% of their revenue because of COVID-19. The $1 milion in funding was to be dispersed in increments up to $10,000. North Carolina Humanities Council also set up a grant system throughout the state to distribute more than $600,000 in emergency funding to nonprofit cultural organizations that have been negatively affected by the pandemic.

81. Memphis, Tennessee

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.1% (#79 highest of 150 cities examined)

Unemployment in the Memphis metropolitan area reached 12.7 percent in April, more than three times the March percentage. The Memphis International Airport in May reported an $11 million loss.

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80. Sacramento, California

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.1% (#79 highest of 150 cities examined)

The coronavirus crisis hit Sacramento with an almost $90 million loss in projected revenue. The city budget for the coming year seeks to mitigate that loss and balance the budget without having to make cuts or layoffs but rather by a half-cent sales tax increase termed “Measure U.”

79. Anaheim, California

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.1% (#79 highest of 150 cities examined)

Disney theme parks, which have two parks, three hotels, and an outside mall, has faced cratering sales in the face of the pandemic. The company could face up to $21 billion in lost revenue through 2022. Disneyland Resorts’ outdoor strip called “Downtown Disney” in Anaheim was slated to reopen in mid-September at limited capacity.

78. Aurora, Colorado

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.3% (#77 highest of 150 cities examined)

Aurora in April issued a hiring freeze and furloughed approximately 576 city employees. City officials projected a $20- to $25-million shortfall toward the general fund budget.

77. Charlotte, North Carolina

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.3% (#77 highest of 150 cities examined)

Charlotte City Council members in August approved $8 million in relief funding for hotels and restaurants hit hard by the pandemic. Assistance for these businesse will come in the form grants and marketing help with $5 million allocated for the restaurant industry and $3 million for Charlotte hotels.

76. Richmond, Virginia

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.4% (#75 highest of 150 cities examined)

Richmond-area clinics have moved swiftly with the third phase of clinical vaccine trials and recruiting volunteers to participate. The trials were expected to begin by Sept. 14.

75. Gulfport, Mississippi

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.4% (#75 highest of 150 cities examined)

With approximately 3,408 residents, the people of Gulfport, the second-largest city in Mississippi, have raised concerns with the city’s reopening plans. The state’s school year began with in-person meetings as normal, but soon after, 100 students at Gulfport High School were sent home after coming into contact with a teacher who may have contracted the virus.

74. Tucson, Arizona

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.5% (#72 highest of 150 cities examined)

Tucson in April braced for a deficit expected to eclipse that of 2009, according to a memorandum from City Manager Michael Ortega. The city received $95 million from the CARES Act to counteract lost revenue there due to the pandemic.

73. Columbia, South Carolina

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.5% (#72 highest of 150 cities examined)

In May, Columbia was projected to cost $20 million in lost revenue this year due to COVID-19. Lawmakers in the state arrived in Columbia Sept. 12 to address changes to the state budget, including $500 million earmarked for making up lost revenue amounts.

72. San Francisco

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.5% (#72 highest of 150 cities examined)

Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) in September received an infusion of $1.2 billion in federal grant money to increase frequency of trains in the Transbay Tube. The BART system was hit particularly hard by the pandemic due to decreased ridership and cratered revenue.

71. Phoenix

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.6% (#67 highest of 150 cities examined)

Just after the pandemic was declared, it was reported in April that 250,000 Arizonans lost their jobs in only three weeks. Despite economic woes throughout the metropolitan area, Phoenix saw significant single-family rent growth with a 5 percent increase in June 2020 over the same time in 2019.

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70. Washington D.C. (tie)

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.6% (#67 highest of 150 cities examined)

Washington D.C. met with strong criticized for its lack of testing access early on in the pandemic. Mayor Muriel Bowser on Aug. 25 issued a mandate requiring insurance companies to provide 100 percent financial coverage for coronavirus tests administereed to people considered high-risk. A survey conducted by the Greater Washington Partnership of 400 businesses owners in the D.C.-metro area found that most workers in the region are unlikely to return to offices before summer 2021.

69. Columbus, Ohio (tie)

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.6% (#67 highest of 150 cities examined)

As Columbus hospitals lost millions and Ohio hospitals as a whole lost billions in revenue from March through July, the total anticipated loss of revenue for Columbus this year was predicted by city officials in June to total almost $42 million. A study released in mid-August suggests tax revenue from apparel, restaurants, tourism, and vehicle sales could fall by up to 50 percen due to the pandemic.

68. Burlington, Vermont

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.6% (#67 highest of 150 cities examined)

Burlington, known for its creative arts, expects a $15 million revenue loss from the pandemic in the next two years. The city faced a significant outbreak for a short period, which caused cases to soar temporarily, but the state health department by mid-August considers the outbreak to be resolved.

67. Gary, Indiana

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.6% (#67 highest of 150 cities examined)

The coronavirus pandemic served to exacerbate Gary’s already tenuous economy and putting pressure on the Food Bank of Northwest Indiana to ensure families could stay fed. By late April, the city represented the second-highest case count of COVID-19 in the state. Just 44 percent of Ohio residents in late August approved of Gov. Gary Herbert‘s COVID-19 response.

66. Milwaukee

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.7% (#63 highest of 150 cities examined)

Milwaukee made news early on in the pandemic when former city health commissioner Dr. Jeanette Kowalik warned residents about how dangerous the virus could be and brought to light the racial disparities in the city’s coronavirus patients. By mid-May, Milwaukee County was bracing for a budgetary impact totaling $450 million due to Covid-19.

65. Boise, Idaho

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.7% (#63 highest of 150 cities examined)

COVID-19 came down especially hard on Idaho’s education system, which took an almost $100 million cut in order to recoup lost revenue. Such drastic measures turned the economy around throughout the state: Idaho was on track by mid-August to see a $405 million surplus by the end of 2020.

64. Dover, Delaware

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.7% (#63 highest of 150 cities examined)

Dover by the end of May was down more than $5 million in utilities and services and lost over $100,000 in fees and permits related to events including the Dover NASCAR race. Kent County, Traffic data captured 1 mile south of Dover Toll Plaza on Del. 1 showed a 32 percent drop in traffic count between March 22 and May 27. Traffic throughout the state has rebounded but is still double digits below traffic counts from the same time in 2019.

63. Wilmington, Delaware

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.7% (#63 highest of 150 cities examined)

In total, Wilmington is expecting to lose more than $27 million in revenue from city fees such as property tax, licenses and permit fees, and red-light camera profits. As the city comes to terms with these losses, officials continue to plan for a slimmer budget for future fiscal years.

62. Rutland, Vermont

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.8% (#58 highest of 150 cities examined)

Rutland has cut down on spending due to the pandemic, but its healthcare workers seem to be the most affected, with more than a $6 million revenue loss to one of the city’s hospitals and about 150 employees furloughed. Revenue losses for the Rutland Regional Medical Center mirror those of hospitals around the country due to bans on elective surgeries.

61. Missoula, Montana

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.8% (#58 highest of 150 cities examined)

Montana got roughly $1.25 billion in federal funding to help recover economic losses during the pandemic. But Missoula County commissioners in July said money hadn’t yet trickled down to Missoula County. Developers in late August pulled out of planned construction for a hotel and conference center at Missoula’s Riverfront Triangle, citing falloffs in entertainment revenue amid the pandemic.

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60. Chesapeake, Virginia

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.8% (#58 highest of 150 cities examined)

Chesapeake’s spike in reported coronavirus cases hit a high in mid-summer 2020. As a result, city officials came down with an iron fist on certain emergency orders. According to city health director Dr. Nancy Welch, many people ages 20 to 49 were possibly not aware of having the virus and were also not wearing a mask, social distancing, or taking other preventative measures to keep the virus under wraps.

59. Virginia Beach, Virginia

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.8% (#58 highest of 150 cities examined)

Virginia Beach, known for its oceanside restaurants, anticipates a $67.3 million revenue loss due to the coronavirus. As a solution, restaurant owners encourage city council members to budget toward advertising the city and its attractions once the beach is deemed safe. Whether or not this will be implemented has yet to be determined.

58. Denver

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.8% (#58 highest of 150 cities examined)

As the pandemic began to garner the necessary attention, Denver Mayor Michael Hancock in mid-May announced a $226 million revenue shortfall for the city and the mandatory furlough of hundreds of employees. According to Chief Financial Officer Brendan Hanlon, Denver is currently seeing a more significant loss than in the Great Recession’s first year.

57. Lewiston, Maine

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 5.9% (#57 highest of 150 cities examined)

Lewiston officials have projected a $1.6 million revenue loss and are currently working to offset the striking numbers with its “rainy fund.” Some of these cuts include those of the public school system.

56. Billings, Montana

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.0% (#56 highest of 150 cities examined)

As of Aug. 4, 72 percent of state residents hospitalized with COVID-19 were being cared for in Billings hospitals. Several restaurants downtown closed during the pandemic, but new eateries opening suggest optimism and hope for a rebounding economy.

55. Providence, Rhode Island

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.1% (#52 highest of 150 cities examined)

The Providence Business Loan Fund offers an infusion of funding for eligible businesses and borrowers, while the city’s Revolving Fund Commercial Corridor Micro-Business Loan provided eligible businesses with up to $5,000 for necessary renovations to reopen safely. For workers who lost their jobs, the state offers a means of holding onto health insurance through HealthSource RI.

54. Mesa, Arizona

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.1% (#52 highest of 150 cities examined)

Mesa in April was infused with $90 million from the Coronavirus Relief Fund. The city that same month rolled out the Mesa CARES initiative in order to find out what businesses, residents, and local non-profits needed in terms of support to weather the pandemic. The outreach initiative was designed to help city officials learn how to best allocate the federal funds.

53. Norfolk, Virginia

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.1% (#52 highest of 150 cities examined)

On July 31 amid a spike in COVID-19 cases that reached a 10.8 percent positivity rate, stricter rules throughout Virginia were enacted to limit indoor dining, close bars and restaurants by midnight, and establish “last call” at 10 p.m. The positivity rate dropped by early September to 6.7 percent, allowing regulations to loosen by Sept. 10. Norfolk business owners remarked to local news outlet WTKR that the city quickly came back alive.

52. Tulsa, Oklahoma

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.1% (#52 highest of 150 cities examined)

Despite increasing coronavirus cases and the budget’s financial loss, Tulsa City Council in early September approved $2 million in funds to cater to the city’s coronavirus relief. The funds focus on public health emergencies and community-driven programs. By doing this, the city hopes to help keep the economic structure as normal as possible.

51. Cincinnati

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.2% (#50 highest of 150 cities examined)

Amid extensive business closures during the pandemic, some Cincinnati residents have expressed worry about permanent changes to the neighborhoods. Throughout the state, about 800 restaurants have closed permanently.

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50. Colorado Springs, Colorado

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.2% (#50 highest of 150 cities examined)

Colorado Springs has seen some positive signs for its economy, with sales tax revenue increasing month-over-month. A big driver of the increase came from auto sale taxes, which had stagnated in the spring.

48. St. Louis, Missouri (tie)

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.3% (#46 highest of 150 cities examined)

As schools across the nation scramble to find solutions to keep their students on track, St. Louis is one city that has tested the innovative idea of outside schooling. Though it’s not as surefire a way to prevent the virus from spreading as staying home, it allows students to socially distance more than if they were inside a school building.

48. Dayton, Ohio (tie)

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.3% (#46 highest of 150 cities examined)

Dayton International Airport in early September was awarded $586,000 of $2.7 million in federal relief grants granted to Ohio airports. The aviation industry as a whole suffered some of the largest industry-wide revenue losses as travel came to a screeching halt during shutdowns and continued concerns over the transmission of COVID-19.

47. Spokane, Washington

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.3% (#46 highest of 150 cities examined)

Spokane lost $125 million in revenue on some of the city’s most popular events alone. City officials predict such events will not resume until September 2021.

46. Tacoma, Washington

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.3% (#46 highest of 150 cities examined)

Hundreds of Tacoma employees were laid off during the pandemic due to the Metro Parks’ shutdown in the spring, from which the city lost about $13 million in revenue. The parks’ most revenue-dependent businesses reopened with revised safety guidelines over the summer.

45. Little Rock, Arkansas

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.4% (#42 highest of 150 cities examined)

Little Rock’s revenue loss was partly due to the city’s shutdown, which canceled hundreds of conventions and meetings. Tourism is one of the city’s most profitable income sources, and with tourism on hold for the country as a whole, Little Rock saw a significant decrease in profits.

44. Akron, Ohio

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.4% (#42 highest of 150 cities examined)

Akron officials warned residents of steep revenue declines and lack of aid in April, when more than 130 workers returned from their furloughed positions. Akron Children’s Hospital lost $91 million in revenue through June because of the pandemic.

43. Cleveland

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.4% (#42 highest of 150 cities examined)

Cleveland has faced about $40 million in revenue loss due to the pandemic. In July, the city spent $13 million more than it earned in revenues.

42. Huntington, West Virginia

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.4% (#42 highest of 150 cities examined)

Huntington Convention and Visitors Bureau President Tyson Compton told local news outlet WOWK that revenue loss for the city poses a “serious issue.” West Virginia is projected to lose $223 million, and officials have found that each funding area is necessary for the city to function properly.

41. Toledo, Ohio

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.5% (#40 highest of 150 cities examined)

The Ohio Senate voted in early September to distribute federal aid funds to cities in the state that need the assistance, including Toledo, which will receive more than $9 million. This has been said to help offset some of the city’s total revenue loss, which is in the millions.

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40. Reno, Nevada

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.5% (#40 highest of 150 cities examined)

Certain information about the virus has yet to be discovered by medical workers, whether it’s the possibility of a COVID-19 vaccine or other logistics, such as whether a person can grow certain antibodies after having the illness. A patient in Reno was thought likely to be the key to the latter mystery when doctors discovered a recurrence of his COVID-19 symptoms over the span of a few months.

39. St. Petersburg, Florida

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.6% (#37 highest of 150 cities examined)

Financial Services Firm Raymond James, one of the largest based in St. Petersburg, in mid-September laid off around 550 employees around the world. The pandemic all but negated half of the firm’s record earnings in the last several years.

38. Miami

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.6% (#37 highest of 150 cities examined)

Miami Beach is a well-known attraction for social gatherings and beach getaways, but over the summer it became a hotspot for the coronavirus. Miami Beach alone was losing $3.6 million weekly in tourism revenue as of March.

37. Indianapolis

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.6% (#37 highest of 150 cities examined)

Indiana as of Sept. 16 still had $1.3 billion in coronavirus relief funds to allocate throughout the state. Funds may not be used for direct revenue replacement or for expenses outlined already in Indiana’s budget. Officials in mid-September expressed hope for a deadline extension by which to spend the funds.

36. Nampa, Idaho

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.7% (#34 highest of 150 cities examined)

After health officials in late June saw “daily significant increases”‘ in the total number of cases in nearby Ada County, Nampa moved back into Stage 3 of the reopening plan, by which the city ordered all bars to close after the spike. The new directive came after Nampa had been approved to move to Stage 4, at which point businesses and venues reopened with certain social distancing restrictions.

35. Ft. Wayne, Indiana

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.7% (#34 highest of 150 cities examined)

Fort Wayne has played up opportunities to enjoy the area while social distancing in an effort to attract tourists to the area and bring much-needed revenue to local businesses. Throughout the state, about $900 million of reserve funding was used to counteract revenue shortfalls amid the pandemic.

34. Seattle

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.7% (#34 highest of 150 cities examined)

Early on, city officials anticipated Seattle’s revenue loss during the pandemic to total more than $100 million. By September, that estimate had risen to a $326 million budget shortfall, amplifying pressure for budget cuts in a number of city departments including the police force.

33. Tampa, Florida

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.8% (#31 highest of 150 cities examined)

Tourism is a major revenue driver for Tampa. Despite the pandemic, at least 75,000 people headed to Tampa Bay for Labor Day weekend. Travel officials highly encourage visitors to maintain COVID-19 safety guidelines like wearing a mask and socially distancing.

32. Lexington, Kentucky

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.8% (#31 highest of 150 cities examined)

Lexington officials by late April projected a decrease of almost $40 million in revenue for the fiscal year 2020-21. Officials said the impact of the revenue loss was immediate and far-reaching.

31. Hialeah, Florida

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.8% (#31 highest of 150 cities examined)

Closures of major retailers and hospitality chains throughout Southern Florida have been devastating—but they’re leading to exciting business prospects for investors. Business lots in Hialeah have been priced at as much as 20% below market value, which could be a major boon to new businesses in the area.

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30. Aurora, Illinois

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.9% (#29 highest of 150 cities examined)

On Sept. 2, Aurora hit its 5,000th coronavirus case. Mayor Richard Irvin has continuously pushed the city’s “Mask Up” campaign to decrease those numbers and highlight what the mayor calls the “three W’s”: washing hands and the use of sanitizer as often as possible, watching one’s distance, and wearing a mask.

29. Topeka, Kansas

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 6.9% (#29 highest of 150 cities examined)

Kansas was voted in a summer study as the second-most irresponsible state when it came to handling the pandemic due to its lack of mask requirements. Still, Topeka has taken steps to support its residents financially after being granted millions by the CARES Act.

28. Fort Smith, Arkansas

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 7.0% (#27 highest of 150 cities examined)

While revenue from sales tax in Fort Smith seemed promising at the beginning of the pandemic, officials still planned for decline in the months to follow. The projected job losses in the city were reported to be over 10 percent in April. Still, officials say they believe the stimulus check distributed nationwide to Americans this summer and the Payroll Protection Program helped with some of the residents’ financial woes.

27. Pittsburgh

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 7.0% (#27 highest of 150 cities examined)

Pittsburgh’s revenues by mid-May had dropped 25 percent due to the pandemic. When reporting the percentage of unemployed residents whose jobs were affected by the virus, polls found that the city was largely disproportionate in unemployment by race and age. A June 2020 study found 19.7 percent of Black employees were unemployed compared to their white counterparts at 17.2 percent.

26. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 7.1% (#23 highest of 150 cities examined)

Before September 2020, Oklahoma health specialists were not counting antigen testing, which detects antibodies in the body. As the test becomes more popular, officials have decided that counting the test would give them a better picture of the overall reported numbers. Oklahoma City surpassed 70,000 COVID-19 cases by mid-September, making it one of the country’s newest hotspots for the virus.

25. Kansas City, Missouri

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 7.1% (#23 highest of 150 cities examined)

Kansas and Missouri communities have been brought to the brink by the pandemic, which officials say could lead to untenable budget cuts without federal support. Officials in Kansas City have worked to find ways of trimming expenses without relying too heavily on reserves or cutting into funding for fire, police, trash collection, or water.

24. Las Vegas

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 7.1% (#23 highest of 150 cities examined)

Known as a 24-hour city with its lavish boardwalks and bright lights, Las Vegas has seen its biggest casinos reportedly lose over $6 billion in revenue. This money is typically dependent on social gatherings with its gaming, hotels, food and drink, and other attractions.

23. Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 7.1% (#23 highest of 150 cities examined)

Fort Lauderdale experienced a major surge in COVID-19 cases over the summer. Exacerbating significant losses in spring, summer, and fall revenue, many people who typically head to Florida for the winter have cooled on their plans until case counts recede.

22. Louisville, Kentucky

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 7.2% (#21 highest of 150 cities examined)

Louisville Mayor Greg Fischer said in April that Louisville will see $46 million less in revenue this fiscal year and $69 million less in fiscal 2020-21. Kentucky hospitals alone anticipate a loss of $2.6 billion in revenues.

21. Charleston, West Virginia

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 7.2% (#21 highest of 150 cities examined)

West Virginia Gov. Jim Justice in early September allocated $50 million of CARES Act money for schools in order to fund cleaning supplies, PPE, and more COVID-19 testing if needed. Sept. 14 marked the single-highest day for COVID-19 patients at Charleston Area Medical Center Hospitals with 60 people being cared for.

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20. Chicago

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 7.3% (#20 highest of 150 cities examined)

Chicago Mayor Lori Lightfoot projected a budget shortfall estimated at $1.2 billion in 2021. Lightfoot, who has been strict on the city’s stay-at-home orders, says tax receipts saw a major decrease in numbers from the lack of restaurant operation, hotels, tourism, and other attractions. She also noted that the recent looting that took place earlier this summer hit many small businesses hard.

19. Charleston, South Carolina

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 7.6% (#19 highest of 150 cities examined)

Charleston reportedly let go of many employees in the pandemic’s wake as it announced a $6 million budget cut in August. As a result, the city is attempting to adjust to the new budget by cutting expenses, hence the loss of employment for residents and small businesses.

18. New Orleans

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 7.7% (#18 highest of 150 cities examined)

One of New Orleans’ main sources of revenue is tourism, which typically bring in more than $16 billion annually. Most famous is the city’s Mardi Gras celebration. According to Chief Marketing Officer of New Orleans and Company Mark Romig, “each household in Louisiana would be paying about $1,100 more in taxes” without the tourism attractions.

17. Philadelphia

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 8.0% (#17 highest of 150 cities examined)

Philadelphia was one of the first cities to be prepped by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to be ready for a COVID-19 vaccine by Nov. 1. The vaccine would be distributed across the urban area’s pharmacies. Philadelphia could lose more than $200 million in tax revenue from the COVID-19 crisis.

16. Grand Rapids, Michigan

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 8.2% (#16 highest of 150 cities examined)

Leaders of advocacy groups believe the pandemic’s impact has led to major mental health issues and a financial burden on Grand Rapids residents. On Sept. 4, Commissioner Joe Jones requested that some of the CARES Act funds be implemented in aiding those in need through the pandemic and offsetting the city’s revenue loss, as well as be allocated to fund anti-violence resources.

15. Warren, Michigan

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 8.3% (#12 highest of 150 cities examined)

Warren began distributing free masks to those in need Aug. 20 for as long as supplies lasted. Drive-through testing was scheduled to be made available starting Sept. 17 at Warren City Hall.

14. Baton Rouge, Louisiana

– Projected FY 2021 revenue loss under less severe scenario: 8.3% (#12 highest of 150 cities examined)

Baton Rouge projected in May a Investment Bankers Facing Worst Job Loss Since the Months Following 9-11

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